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CHAPTER 3

OPERATION AND FUNCTIONING

This chapter explains the operation of the MG. It discusses the loading, unloading, and clearing procedures, and the cycle of functioning of the weapon. When training the cycle of functioning using dummy ammunition, it is imperative that all safety procedures be followed.

3-1. OPERATION

The overall operation of the MG includes how to load, unload, and clear the weapon. During the weapon's operation, it is mandatory that all ammunition be free of dirt and corrosion, that the ammunition be properly linked, and that the double-linked end be at the top of the ammunition can.

3-2. LOADING PROCEDURES

Trainers must ensure that the weapon functions correctly and that proper headspace and timing have been set before loading. When loading in either mode, the ammunition is fed into the MG in the same manner (Figure 3-1). Ensure that the bolt is forward and the cover is closed. Insert the double-loop end of the ammunition belt into the feedway until the first round is engaged by the belt-holding pawl.

Figure 3-2 shows the correct procedures to use in the machinegun in the single-shot or automatic mode.

a. Single-Shot Mode. When engaging targets at ranges greater than 1,100 meters, using the single-shot mode (firing one round at a time) allows the gunner to deliver well-aimed fire on the target. To load in the single-shot mode--

b. Automatic Mode. To load in the automatic mode--

3-3. UNLOADING PROCEDURES

To unload the MG, the gunner must first ensure that the weapon is in the single-shot mode. The cover is then lifted and the assistant gunner removes the ammunition belt from the feedway. The bolt is then locked to the rear. Once the bolt is locked to the rear, the chamber and T-slot are examined to ensure that they are not holding rounds. In darkness, this must be done by feeling the areas. After the examination has been done (during training), a wooden block is inserted in the receiver between the bolt and the rear of the barrel, extending above and below the receiver about one inch. Then a cleaning rod is inserted in the muzzle end of the barrel and pushed through the bore until it can be seen in the receiver (Figure 3-4).

3-4. CYCLE OF FUNCTIONING

The cycle of functioning is broken down into basic steps: feeding, cambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking. Some of these steps may occur at the same time.

a. Feeding. Feeding is the act of placing a cartridge in the receiver, approximately in back of the barrel, ready for cambering. When the bolt is fully forward and the top is closed, the ammunition belt is held in the feedway by the belt-holding pawl (Figure 3-5).

b. Chambering. Chambering is placing the cartridge into the chamber of the weapon. During this cycle, the bolt moves forward, carrying the cartridge in the T-slot in a direct route to the chamber of the weapon. At the same time, the extractor rides up the extractor cam and when the bolt is fully forward, the extractor grasps the next linked cartridge (Figure 3-10).

c. Locking. The bolt is locked to the barrel and barrel extension.

d. Firing. The firing pin is released, igniting the primer of the cartridge.

e. Unlocking. The bolt is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension.

f. Extracting. The empty cartridge case is pulled from the chamber.

g. Ejecting. The empty cartridge case is expelled from the receiver.

h. Cocking. The firing pin is withdrawn into the cocked position.

(1) When the recoiling groups are fully forward, the top of the cocking lever rests on the rear half of the V-slot in the top plate bracket. As the bolt moves to the rear, the top of the cocking lever is forced forward. The lower end pivots to the rear on the cocking lever pin. The rounded nose of the cocking lever, which fits through the slot in the firing pin extension, forces the extension to the rear, compressing the firing pin spring against the sear stop pin (accelerator stop). As the firing pin extension is pressed to the rear, the hooked notch of the extension rides over the sear notch, forcing the sear down. The sear spring forces the sear back up after the hooked notch of the firing pin extension has entered the sear notch.

(2) The pressure of the sear and firing pin springs holds the two notches locked together. There is a slight overtravel of the firing pin extension in its movement to the rear to ensure proper engagement with the sear. As the bolt starts forward, the overtravel is taken up and completed when the cocking lever enters the V-slot of the top plate bracket, and is caromed toward the rear; pressure on the cocking lever is relieved as the bolt starts forward.

3-5. LEFT-HAND FEED

By repositioning some of the components, the MG is capable of alternate feed. Ammunition can be fed into the weapon from the right or left side of the receiver; however the Army uses only left-hand feed. (See Table 3-1).

DANGER

Clear the gun of ammunition before setting headspace

3-6. HEADSPACE AND TIMING

Headspace is the distance between the face of the bolt and the base of the cartridge case, fully seated in the chamber. Timing is the adjustment of the gun so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are in the correct position for firing. Because the cartridge is held by the T-slot of the bolt, headspace with the MG is measured as the distance between the rear of the barrel and the face of the bolt. This occurs when the recoiling parts are forward and there is positive contact between the breech lock recess in the bolt and the lock in the barrel extensions. Periodic calibration checks should be made of the gauge by direct support personnel at least annually.

WARNING

Firing a weapon that has improperly set headspace and timing could result in
damage to the machine gun, or injury to the gunner. Damage may also occur
in the trunnion block, base of the barrel, or face of the bolt. This warning
applies whether the gun is firing service ammunition or M1E1 blanks. (The
weapon has improper early timing when two rounds are fired--and firing
stops.)

a. Gauges. The headspace and timing gauge consists of a headspace gauge and two timing gauges (Figure 3-16). These gauges provide an accurate means of checking the adjustment of headspace and timing.

NOTE: The headspace and timing gauge should be kept with the gun at all times.

b. Headspace. Check and set headspace before firing, after assembling the gun, and after replacing the barrel or receiver group. Use the following procedures to set headspace.

WARNING

When resetting the headspace and timing of a gun that
has been fired, use an asbestos mitt to avoid burns.

NOTE: At this point, check the barrel for rotation. Attempt to turn the barrel in either direction. The barrel should not turn. If the barrel does turn, stop here and check barrel notches and the barrel-locking spring for damage.

NOTE: Insert the go end of the gauge between the face of the bolt and the end of the barrel all the way up to the ring.

NOTE: You should not have to unscrew the barrel more than five notches (clicks) beyond the first setting of two clicks. If this condition does occur, turn in the machine gun to your unit armorer for inspection.

c. Timing. Timing is the adjustment of the weapon so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are between .020 and .116 inch out of battery to prevent contact between the front end of the barrel extension and the trunnion block. Use the following procedures to set timing.

WARNING

Make sure the gun is clear of ammunition before starting.

NOTE: Insert timing gauge with bevel against barrel notches.

NOTE: If the gun does not fire, go to step 5. If the gun does fire, you have early timing. Go on to steps 7 through 14.

NOTE: If the gun does not fire, you have late timing. Go to steps 7 through 14.

WARNING

Never cock the gun with the backplate off.

d. Field Expedient Methods. When a go/no-go gauge is not available, you can still set the headspace and timing using field expedient methods. However, this method should be used only in combat.